Leslie Lamport has proven that if we have processors that work properly 3m-1, it is possible to reach a consensus (agreement on the same state) if most m processors are defective, which means that strictly more than two-thirds of the total processors should be honest. The main node (Leader) is changed during each view (pBFT consensus towers) and can be replaced by a vision modification protocol if a predefined amount of time is spent without the main node sending a backup requirement (secondary). If necessary, a majority of honest knots can vote on the legitimacy of the current leader node and replace it with the next head knot in the series. What is the Byzantine margin of error? The Byzantine Margin of Error (BFT) is the characteristic of a distributed network to reach consensus (agreement on the same value), even if some network nodes do not respond or react with false information. The objective of a BFT mechanism is to protect system failures by using collective decision-making (correct and erroneous nodes) to reduce the influence of defective nodes. BFT derives from the problem of Byzantine generals. The Byzantine margin of error can be reached if nodes that function properly on the network reach an agreement on their values. There may be a default voting value for missing messages, i.e. we can assume that the message from a particular node is “defective” if the message is not received within a specified time frame. In addition, we can also assign a standard response if the majority of nodes respond with a correct value. Imagine that several divisions of the Byzantine army are stored outside an enemy city, each division is commanded by its own general. Generals can only communicate with each other by messenger.
After observing the enemy, they must opt for a common action plan. However, some generals may be traitors who try to prevent loyal generals from reaching an agreement. The generals must decide when they attack the city, but they need a large majority of their army to attack at the same time. Generals must have an algorithm to ensure that (a) all loyal generals decide on the same plan of action, and (b) a small number of traitors cannot lead loyal generals to adopt a bad plan. The general faithful will do everything the algorithm says, but traitors can do whatever they want. The algorithm must guarantee the condition (a) regardless of what the traitors do. Not only should loyal generals agree, but they should agree on a reasonable plan. PBFT Variations: Many variants have been proposed and applied to improve the quality and performance of pBFT for certain cases and conditions of use. Some of them are: 5. What are the benefits of tokens (with rings) passing approach? i) A processor as a coordinator that processes all requests ii) No hunger if the ring is one-way iii) There are many messages, the data is transmitted by section entered so few users in section iv) A processor as a coordinator that processes all queries v) a message or a single input, if everyone in a) i) ii and iii c) , ii and iii d) i, ii and iv View Answer pBFT attempts to provide a practical Byzantine state computer replication that can work even when harmful nodes work in the system.